Direct Speech, Reported Speech, Indirect Questions, Subjunctive

Direct Speech

Statements

“She plays well,” he said (to me)
“She is playing well,” he said.
“She will play well,” he said.
“She will be playing well,” he said.
“She played well,” he said.
“She has played well,” he said.
“She has been playing well,” he said.
“She had played well,” he said.
“She had been playing well,” he said.
“She will have played well,” he said.
“She will have been playing well,” he said.
“She may/can play well,” he said.
“She must play well,” he said.



Yes/No Questions

“Did she play well?” he asked (me).

Wh-Questions

“How did she play?” he asked.

Imperatives

“Play well,” he said (to me).
“Don’t play,” he said.

Indirect Speech / Reported Speech

Statements: sb said that…/sb told sm that

He said that she played well.
He said that she was playing well.
He said that she would play well.
He said that she would be playing well.
He said that she had played well.
He said that she had played well.
He said that she had been playing well.
He said that she had played well.
He said that she had been playing well.
He said that she would have played well.
He said that she would have been playing well.
He said that she might/could play well.
She said that she must/had to play well.

Yes/No Questions

He asked (me) if/whether he played well.

Wh-Questions

He asked (me) how he had played.

Imperatives

He told me/asked me to play well.
He told me/asked me not to play.


Time + Place Expressions, Pronouns

now - then, at that time
yesterday - the day before/the previous day
today – that day
tomorrow – the following day/the next day/the day after
tonight – that night
next week – the following week/the next week/the week after
a year ago – a year before/the previous year/a year earlier/the year before
last year – the previous year/the year before
here – there
this – that/it these – those
I – he/she
me – him/her
my – his/her
mine – his/hers


No changes in tenses

He said that water boils at 100 degrees.
He has said/says that she can help me.
He said that he would rather play.
He said that if he played well, she would win.
He said that he wishes he had more time.
He said that while he was playing, he fell.

Indirect Questions

Do you know where he went?
I have no idea what she likes.
I don’t know what time it is.
I am wondering how he did it.
I can’t tell you why she is angry.


Reported Speech-Other introductory verbs

He is said / rumoured to have resigned.
He offered to help me.
He agreed to come early.
He demanded to know where she was.
She promised to come /that she would come on time.
She refused to answer the question.
He threatened to expel him.
She claimed to be/that she was innocent.
She advised them to study more.
He allowed / permitted/forbade him to leave.
He asked them to clean the room.
She begged him to help her.
He commanded/ordered them to sit down.
She encouraged them to go on.
She instructed him to follow/how to follow the rules.
She invited him to attend the lecture.
She reminded him to mail the letter.
She warned him not to go out.
She accused him of cheating.
She blamed him for breaking the vase.
She denied cheating/that she had cheated.
She admitted (to) cheating/that she had cheated.
She apologised to him for coming late.
He insisted on paying the bills.
He suggested/proposed/recommended taking the bus.
He exclaimed that it was a fantastic view.
She explained to him that he had to do it/how he should do it.
She informed them that the meeting was cancelled.
She wondered if/whether /how they were coming
She urged them not to panic.
She complained to the manager about the food/that the food was bad.

Subjunctive

He suggested/proposed/recommended that she travel by plane.
He advised that she revise the notes.
He urged that she not panic.
She ordered/commanded that they sit down.
She asked/required/requested/demanded that the paper be handed in on time.
He insisted that there be silence.
He decided that they should stop working.
He will prepare in case he should give them a test.
It is important/significant/essential that he be taken to hospital.
It is vital that she apply in person.
It is imperative that there be a meeting.
It is urgent that he visit the doctor.
It is necessary that he do all the work.
It is advisable that she not smoke.
Her suggestion/proposal/recommendation/advice was that he be patient.
His decision was that they should travel by plane.
He practises hard in order that he might win.
He locked all the doors for fear that somebody might break into the house.
However hard he might work, he doesn’t earn a lot.
Try as he might, he doesn’t earn a lot.

Reported Speech -Changes in modals

“She must be tired,” he said. He said that she must be tired. (assumption)
“She needn’t revise,” he said. He said that she /needn’t /didn’t have/need to revise.
“She needn’t wake up early tomorrow,” he said. He said that she wouldn’t have to wake up early the following day. (future)
“She can come later,” he said. He said that she would be able to come later. (future)

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