Relative ClausesThis is the man who/that threatened me.
This is the cat which/that scratched me.
This is the man whose car was stolen.
This is the dog whose owners abandoned it.
This is the man whom/who/that I met.
This is the book which/that I bought.
The woman to whom I talked is a doctor.
The woman who/that I talked to is a doctor.
The woman I talked to is a doctor.
The hotel at which we stayed was big.
The hotel which/that we stayed at was big.
The hotel where we stayed was big.
The hour at which the show begins is 10.
The hour which/that the show begins at is 10.
The hour when the show begins is 10.
The reason for which he left is unknown.
The reason which he left for is unknown.
The reason why he left is unknown.
The reason for his leaving is unknown.
My father, who is a teacher, is strict.
My house, whose garden is big, has got three rooms.
My dog, which is a puppy, is cute.
He helped me, which was nice of him.
She’s got a lot of friends, some/none/all of whom have the same interests as her.
He visited many countries, two/several of which are in South America.
The man who is sitting there is my teacher.
The man sitting there is my teacher.
The man who was arrested is a robber.
The man arrested is a robber.
It was John who helped me.
It was yesterday that I saw him.
It was at the restaurant that I met them.
Whoever wins will get a prize.
I’ll talk to whomever I like.
I’ll do whatever I want.
Concession ClausesAlthough/Even though/Though he works hard, he doesn’t make much.
Although/Even though/Though he is tired, he will go out.
Although/Though tired, he will go out.
Despite/In spite of the fact that he works hard, he doesn’t make much.
Despite/In spite of working hard, he doesn’t make much.
Despite /In spite of his working hard, his boss doesn’t appreciate him.
Despite/In spite of his hard work, he doesn’t make much.
Despite/In spite of what he does, his boss doesn’t appreciate him.
No matter how well he speaks/what he says, I don’t believe him.
Hard though/as he works, he doesn’t make much.
Hard as he may/might work, he doesn’t make much.
As hard as he works, he doesn’t make much.
I told him not to go out, but he went all the same.
However hard he works, he doesn’t make much.
Try as he might, he doesn’t make much.
Regardless/Irrespective of the dangers, he does extreme sports.
Whatever colour you paint the wall, it won’t look good.
Come out, whoever you are.
He works hard. However, he doesn’t make much.
He works hard. Yet/Still/Nonetheless/
Nevertheless, he doesn’t make much.
He works hard. He doesn’t make much, however/though.
Even if it should rain, I will go out.
He likes coffee while/whereas she likes tea.
Clauses of ReasonSince/As/Because he was late, his mum got angry.
His being late, his mum got angry.
He didn’t hire her, for she was not qualified.
Seeing that he was late, he called her.
Due to/Because of /Owing to the storm, we drove slowly.
There is unemployment in view of there being a financial crisis.
He was found guilty on the grounds of new evidence.
He was found guilty on the grounds that there was new evidence.
The reason why he was found guilty was that there was new evidence.
The reason for his being found guilty was that there was new evidence.
The reason for his dismissal was that he was always coming late.
Considering the new evidence, he was found guilty.
Clauses of PurposeShe woke up early so as to/in order to/to catch the bus.
He talked loudly so that/in order that everybody could/would hear him.
He locked all the doors for fear that somebody might
break in/for fear of someone breaking in.
They built the shelter with the aim of/with a view toprotecting stray dogs.
Take more money with you in case you (should) need it.
This knife is for cutting fruit.
Place ClausesWherever you go, he will find you.
Where there is a will, there is a way.
Everywhere he went, he had fun.
Clauses of ResultIt was such an interesting film that I saw it twice.
Such an interesting film was it that I saw it twice.
Such was her fear that she couldn’t stop shaking.
It was such bad weather that we stayed in.
They were such heavy boxes that I couldn’t lift them.
There was such a lot of noise that he was extremely annoyed.
The film was so interesting that I saw it twice.
It was so interesting a film that I saw it twice.
So interesting was the film that I saw it twice.
So interesting a film was it that I saw it twice.
There were so many people that I couldn’t breathe.
There were so few people that the room looked empty.
There was so little time left that we panicked.
He had so much free time that he could do anything he wanted.
The book was too boring to read.
It was too boring a book to read.
He hadn’t studied and as a result, he failed.
He has got a big family and therefore, he needs to work harder.
Time ClausesWherever he goes, I will find him.
When he is angry, he yells.
Once/When/As soon as/The moment/After he settles down, he’ll feel fine.
Upon/On /After settling, he’ll be fine.
By the time he comes, I will have eaten.
By the time he came, I had left.
When he saw me, he started laughing.
After he had eaten, he studied.
(After) having eaten, he studied.
While/As he was working, she visited him.
While he was working, she was playing.
She met him while walking in the park.
Whenever he came, he would bring flowers.
Whenever he comes, he brings flowers.
ExclamationsWhat a nice dress this is!
What good kids they are!
What bad weather this is!
How polite he is!
How polite a man he is!
How well he talks!
She is such a beautiful girl!
She is so nice!
Noun ClausesIt pleased me that she visited me.
That he visited me pleased me.
His visiting me pleased me.
What he did surprised me.
I was surprised by what he did.
What he did was surprising.